As the market develops and more people are familiarized, products with whole or recognizable insects may yet become more viable as the positive interaction between visibility and previous experience does indicate that those who may have enjoyed insect food in the past will be less reluctant to buy products where insects are an obvious ingredient. Dev. In contrast to beef, lamb, and poultry, postmortem changes rapidly render insects unpalatable. The Bush Grub Team again have a broad range of products to satisfy your insect needs, including: Raw Insects Insect Gift Sets Insect Candy Crispy Critters insect Flour Presenting food in a meaningful way to the participants helped give an accurate picture of its acceptability (Marshall and Bell 2003). (2013), though consumer acceptance may have improved since, thanks to extensive media coverage and a public increase in environmental awareness. Bloch, P. H., D. L. Sherrell, and N. M. Ridgway. the body of research on issues such as insect nutrition and food safety, the use of insects as animal feed, and the processing and preservation of insects and their products. Vanhonacker, F., E. J. 2013, Lensvelt and Steenbekkers 2014, Tan et al. People already interested in insect food may have been more likely to respond otherwise (Groves et al. Young children were positively influenced by talking about the insect food pictures with their peers. On the other hand, British people, younger people, meat eaters, regular green shoppers, postgraduate degree holders, and females were less likely to choose alternatives with visible insects. Similarly, it was found that respondents aged 18–29 yr were the age group most likely to buy insects (TrendsTracker (Blueshift Research) 2015). A limitation of our school investigation is the reliance on pictures rather than tasting of real products, due to both ethical and practical reasons. C Matilda Collins, Pauline Vaskou, Yiannis Kountouris, Insect Food Products in the Western World: Assessing the Potential of a New ‘Green’ Market, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 112, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages 518–528, https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saz015. Jahns, L., A. M. Siega-Riz, and B. M. Popkin. found that meal combinations were important in rating meat substitutes (2011). Debriefing questions allowed the identification of protest responses which were then excluded from the estimations, as suitable for a private good model analysis (Lindsey 1994). About 16% of children and 29% of adults had eaten insects before and <2% did not eat meat. Yeomans, M. R., L. Chambers, H. Blumenthal, and A. Blake. And I put together my 12 favourite edible insect products for you to get inspired and start eating bugs today. No preference was identified between pictures of snacks and meals (t165 = 1.6, P > 0.05), nor was a stated preference for one over the other seen in the questionnaire (χ2 = 1.2, df = 1, P > 0.05). Position Paper – The revision of EU food hygiene legislation and import rules for insects as food. 1 ton of insects can convert 4.5 tonnes of organic waste into high-quality nutrients. Milner, J., R. Green, A. D. Dangour, A. Haines, Z. Chalabi, J. Spadaro, A. Markandya, and P. Wilkinson. [2] Which species are consumed varies by region due to differences in environment, ecosystems, and climate. In many instances, children minded more what the insects were served with or what the dish was than the fact that the dish contained insects (‘I would eat it if I liked quiche’, boy in year 2). Oonincx, D. G. A. Insects have a high food conversion rate, e.g. Insect food presented to survey participants has usually been restricted to insect-based products viewed in isolation, whereas Elzerman et al. Insects infesting stored food products (1932 revision) @inproceedings{ChapmanInsectsIS, title={Insects infesting stored food products (1932 revision)}, author={Royal N. Chapman and H. H. Shepard} } P. V., on whose MSc thesis this work is based, thanks Julie Urquhart for her contribution to survey planning and Judith Cherni and Karen Makuch for advising on social science inquiries. Parts of insects, e.g., legs, wings, or heads, as well as whole insects, fall within this definition. About 95% of respondents indicated living in Europe, the United States or Canada with half from France, nearly a third from the United Kingdom and 7% from the United States. Insects are considered nutritionally healthier than red meat (Bukkens 2005, Magalhães et al. The main benefits of insect food were then briefly introduced, following a general script used with all classes, before setting up a group activity. A nonnegligible segment of the population surveyed is willing to pay for mealworm minced meat and young children and pre-teens could represent a substantial market segment, as yet unexplored. The English place more importance on organic and convenience factors in their food decisions than the French, who prioritize pleasurable and social aspects of eating (Pettinger et al. Several factors influence openness to new food experiences, for example, expectations of food flavor (Yeomans et al. This is one reason why even some low-priced insect products may not sell well. Even if a web format is used and linked to more accurate reporting (Kreuter et al. Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London. Environ. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Report by the Sustainable Development Comission for DEFRA, United Kingdom, The role of topic interest in survey participation decisions, Review of evidence on consumer food-related behaviours that impact on sustainability, Report EV0541 for Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, United Kingdom, The psychology of eating insects: a cross-cultural comparison between Germany and China, Dep. Indeed, stated green habits in the parents’ questionnaires did not translate into an increased willingness to try insect food. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. [23], On 1 May 2017, Switzerland has approved the following insect species as food:[24]. Shorter. Now, there are a variety of sources and products available. More than one-third had eaten insects before and had, on average, enjoyed the experience (mean = 1.37, SD = 2.31). Previous literature gives us reason to expect that the visibility of insects has a shaping influence on Westerners’ willingness to try. Pictures of food without visible insects or insect parts were preferred over pictures with visible insects (t136 = 12, P < 0.001, Fig. However, willingness to try insect food decreased with age in children (rs159=−0.26, P < 0.01), unlike for adults where no variation was identified with age. Global Insect Products for Food market: types and end industries analysis The research report includes specific segments such as end industries and product types of Insect Products for Food. 2012) and including them in our diets may decrease risk factors for some diseases as well as generate an environmental quality gain. The median age was 21 yr with 45% of respondents over 25-yr old and an age range from 12- to 90-yr old. Insects could be visible or not and protein could be ready to eat or not (e.g., required cooking). Table below combined the data from two studies[21][22] published in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, and summarized the potential hazards of the top five insect species consumed by humans. Insects such as crickets are a complete protein and contain a useful amount, comparable with protein from soybeans, though less than in casein (found in foods such as cheese). This may be particularly true if the identified interested child segment is targeted early and educated about the benefits of insect food. About 54% of respondents answered the French version, whereas the rest answered the survey in English. Before the topic was introduced, pupils were asked if they knew that insects could be eaten for food. Consequently, some of the divergence with other single-country consumer surveys (Verbeke 2015) can be viewed in the light of localized psychosocial influences on food choice. Balanced written anchor points were given so that each respondent would see the scale in the same way. The age of adult respondents ranged from 33 to 75 yr with a mean of 45 yr (SD = 6.27). Natl. One-third of a representative U.S. population sample recently declared being likely to buy insect-based products (TrendsTracker (Blueshift Research) 2015) and one out of five meat consumers have said that they are ready to adopt insect food (Verbeke 2015). About 500 tonnes of insect-based food … The ethical aspects of the school investigations were considered and discussed with the school representatives before the project was approved by the Centre for Environmental Policy (CEP). Edible insects, such as crickets and grasshoppers (orthopterans), mealworms (coleopteran larvae), caterpillars (lepidopteran larvae), or various fly larvae (dipterans), could provide an alternative meat source, while im… INSECT FOOD PRODUCTS . The insects are raised from eggs to larvae status (mealworms, lesser mealworms) or to their mature form (crickets, locusts), and then killed, in industrialized insect farms by lowering the temperature. Showing pictures of fully cooked dishes with insects elicited the same responses as when children looked at pictures of insect snacks. 528, Mix. 2011, Berger et al. Indeed, children (t160 = 3.5, P < 0.001) and parents (t113 = 3.6, P < 0.001) were both less likely to imagine regularly eating insects compared with simply trying insect food. That’s us! In North American as well as European countries such as the Netherlands or Belgium, insects are produced under strict food law and hygiene standard for human consumption. The vast majority of respondents were meat-eaters; environmental arguments were given by 40% of the non-meat-eaters. Eight school classes took part in one or two sessions, as some requested a follow-up visit to discuss research and scientific method as part of an extended outreach program. One apparent trade-off, the visibility of insect parts, was of greater influence than price in the choice experiment highlighting that different factors will influence purchase decisions: the insect market is far from being one-dimensional. Frequent exercise was a clear shared characteristic among market participants. There is an increasing market for edible insects and insect-based food products worldwide, particularly outside the United States. The slight distinction seen between boys’ and girls’ attitudes is, in this study, possibly confounded with family background as most boy respondents came from School B which had different socioeconomic characteristics to School A. Some insect species could be used in Western countries as alternative protein sources, in particular with the aim to ensure the security of the meat-protein supply (van Huis 2013). Though we found no positive peer influence between teenagers in this study, this may be because teenagers can be unwilling to admit it, as Lee (2014) found that the strongest predictor of the green shopping behavior of Hong Kong adolescents was peer influence. C. M. C. would like to thank Mark Q Benedict for careful review and supportive ‘Americanization’ of the manuscript. Since they feed on any items containing grain or cereal products, the Indianmeal moth alone is responsible for most of the insect problems associated with the food industry. [26], The World Edible Insect Day, being held on 23 October, was introduced by Belgian entrepreneur Chris Derudder in 2015 to raise awareness globally for the consumption of edible insects, with a focus on Europe, North America, and Australia. This preference for familiar-looking food suggests that ready-meals with insects may find a market. Tobler, C., V. H. Visschers, and M. Siegrist. The full and minimally adequate linear regression models with coefficients (±SE) and significance levels (*≤5%, **≤1%, ***≤0.1%) for each retained variable, R2 = 0.11, Full and minimally adequate Heckman two-step models with coefficients (±SEs) and significance levels (*≤5%, **≤1%, ***≤0.1%) for each retained variable. The contribution that insects make to food security in Africa, Asia, and South America has been documented, but in the 20th century, little attention was paid to the role they could play as protein contributors in the Western world (Illgner and Nel 2000). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. In a global context where consumers as well as producers are seeking for sustainability and alternative to fishmeal to protect the ocean resources, ENTOFOOD offers high quality insect-based products for animal nutrition. [1] These species include 235 butterflies and moths, 344 beetles, 313 ants, bees and wasps, 239 grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches, 39 termites, and 20 dragonflies, as well as cicadas. Although eating insects is still rare in Europe and North America, there has been a rising interest since the turn of the millennium (Tucker 2013). One hundred and fourteen parents, 58% women and 42% men, of these children returned a survey. Visible insect parts are a strongly negative attribute, seen here in the children’s insect food picture ranking and in the survey of Dutch and Australian consumers by Lensvelt and Steenbekkers (2014). They can also cause enormous economic losses through damage and contamination of food products. Mass production in the insect industry is a concern due to a lack of technology and funds to efficiently harvest, and produce insects. This includes susceptibility to disease, efficiency of feed conversion, developmental rate and generational turnover.[13]. Insect food processed to resemble familiar items may be more palatable to many relative to unprocessed insects (Hartmann et al. 2015). Second, it suggests that there would be a growing market in the future as children become adults and gain purchasing power. Efficiency is intrinsic to raising insects as they can convert feed 12 times more efficiently than cattle (van Huis et al., 2013) and 80–100% of their body mass is commonly used compared with 40% for beef (Nakagaki and Defoliart 1991, van Huis 2013). Office of National Statistics, United Kingdom, Insects as food: exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance, Promoting sustainable consumption: determinants of green purchases by Swiss consumers, R: A language and environment for statistical computing. On the other hand, vegetarians may be less willing to try insect food compared with regular meat-eaters. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Imperial College London approvals process for non-medical studies and was approved at the Departmental level by Chair’s review. Unlike in Verbeke’s Belgian sample however (N = 368, 2015), younger adults did not appear more prone to adopting insect food. Most consumers see benefits in insect food and were willing to choose between insect food products in the hypothetical set-up. The mid-point income bracket mean indicated a typical annual income of £40,000. DEFRA, United Kingdom, Sample selection bias as a specification error, Effects of a model on food neophobia in humans, Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Insects as food or edible insects are insect species used for human consumption, e.g., whole or as an ingredient in processed food products such as burger patties, pasta, or snacks. Lensvelt, E. J. S., and L. P. A. Steenbekkers. It is strange that even today this insect emerges only once after four years. [19], The industry also has to consider the shelf life of insects in comparison to animal products as that some can have food safety concerns. Finally, we would like to thank all interviewees for their willingness to participate in this research and all the people who took time to distribute and take part in the online survey. Commercially, mealworm burgers have been sold in Holland since October 2014, the U.S. fast food chain Wayback Burgers first included cricket milkshakes on its 2015 summer menu, and the European supermarkets Carefour and Sainsburys are now stocking insect snacks. Stat. 2014), but this study sampled only participants with a previous interest in insects. Nutritional arguments are not thought to be enough to overcome the ‘disgust factor’ and convert Westerners to insect-based dishes (Deroy et al. To facilitate consumers’ choice, opt-in alternatives were presented through images of insect meals. This may seem counter-intuitive as women are more likely to make health-conscious dietary changes (Fagerli and Wandel 1999) and insects are promoted as healthy products. 2). Insects have the capability of accumulating potential hazards, such as contaminants, pathogens, the concentration of heavy metals, allergens, and pesticides etc.[20]. It is common practice for at least two billion people and there are now more than 2,000 recorded species of edible insects around the globe (Ramos-Elorduy 2009, van Huis 2013). Consequently, caution should prevail when looking at the magnitude of the identified effect of green shopping habits. Insects, offal, feet and faces: acquiring new tastes in New Zealand? Selective farming can be used to minimize chemical hazard, whereas microbial and parasitical hazard can be controlled by cooking processes. Income was similar to the median national annual earnings in the United Kingdom, but the sample was highly educated (85% degree-holders vs 36% in U.K. population; Office for National Statistics 2016). To facilitate meal planning, many species of insects may be kept alive for several days in the refrigerator. One insect is found more often than any other on stored food and grain in the United States. People exercising regularly or who had already eaten insect food before were more likely to choose an alternative where insects were visible. As access to products expands, we may find that the ‘disgust factor’ is less strong than initially expected. Overall, these respondents were ‘unsure’ about their openness to trying insect food; both the scores of children (t160 = −1.56, P > 0.05) and parents (t113 = −2.0, P > 0.05) were not different from ‘0’. Kreuter, F., S. Presser, and R. Tourangeau. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is traditional in many cultures but not in Western countries (Yen 2009). Under certain conditions, these may be offered to consumers as whole animals, pulverized, or processed in food products. Shiu, E. C. C., J. A choice experiment was implemented to assess the relative importance and estimate consumers’ WTP for attributes charactering an insect protein product. Several variables apply, such as temperature, humidity, feed, water sources, housing, depending on the insect species. Please check for further notifications by email. Additionally, anecdotal evidence hints that targeting children may be a good way to encourage a new generation to eat insects (Vane-Wright 1991, Nacson-Jones 2014), as their food preferences may be more malleable, but the published studies on insect food have included few individuals under the age of 20 yr. Marketing strategy would benefit from more research on how Western taste can be influenced. As EU umbrella organisation for the insect production sector, IPIFF welcomes the establishment of harmonised rules to spell out hygiene requirements and EU import conditions for food insect products. In addition, there was some potential endogeneity in the two-step Heckman model. Future prospects for food and feed security, The geography of edible insects in Sub-Saharan Africa: a study of the mopane caterpillar, The increasing prevalence of snacking among US children from 1977 to 1996, Children’s purchase requests and parental responses: results from an exploratory study in Denmark, Children’s fruit and vegetable intake: socioeconomic, adult-child, regional, and urban-rural influences, Social desirability bias in CATI, IVR, and web surveys, An evaluation of a cognitive theory of response-order effects in survey measurement, Gender specific preferences and attitudes towards meat, Predictors of sustainable consumption among young educated consumers in Hong Kong, Influences on food choice perceived to be important by nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union, Exploring consumer acceptance of entomophagy: a survey and experiment in Australia and the Netherlands, Market models, protest bids, and outliers in contingent valuation, Do explicit warnings eliminate the hypothetical bias in elicitation procedures? 2010). Descriptors of the two schools visited. The questionnaire design was checked using the checklists proposed by Denscombe for small-scale social research projects (2014) and recommendations from Peterson (2000). Environ. This analysis points to multiple marketing strategies, such as early exposure, education, reducing the visibility of insect parts, celebrity endorsement, or peer-to-peer marketing, all of which could facilitate the adoption of insect food in the ‘mainstream’ arena, according to the consumer segment being targeted. ‘You can identify the insects it contains, off putting!’. They also produce fewer greenhouse gases and ammonia, limiting soil nitrification and acidification (Oonincx et al. As vegetarianism is most often adopted due to concerns about health and the ethical treatment of animals (Fox and Ward 2008), insect protein may still appeal to some who have chosen vegetarianism for these reasons. The table below lists the top five insect orders consumed by humans worldwide, retrieved from Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security by Arnold van Huis, Joost Van Itterbeeck, Harmke Klunder, Esther Mertens, Afton Halloran, Giulia Muir and Paul Vantomme.[3]. Our use of convenience sampling strengthens the caution needed when extrapolating too widely from these results. Psychographic variables, such as the frequency of green shopping, the frequency of exercise, and meat-eating behavior, were also controlled for. Baker, S., K. E. Thompson, J. Engelken, and K. Huntley. ‘They look very nice as they have a BBQ flavour’. The machinery would have to house proper enclosure for each life cycle of the insect as well as the temperature control as that is key for insect development. As farming techniques develop, the price of insect food will fall and considerable market openings, from consumers who would be willing to pay for insect food at a low price only, may materialize. ", Questions and Answers: New Novel Food Regulation, Novel foods: a risk profile for the house cricket (Acheta domesticus), Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Insects_as_food&oldid=992919158, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Antinutritional factors (tannin, phytate), This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 20:24. The global Insect Products for Food market is valued at xx million US$ in 2018 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2019-2025. Niangtaser: An insect, a festival, a story, a film! Marketing strategies outside the green sphere will have to be considered if insect food is to become ‘mainstream’. 2001, Piernas and Popkin 2010). Further work could quantify the effects of the identified variables in influencing purchasing behaviors in the context of diverse insect foods. When choosing food, one major concern may drive the decision (Scheibehenne et al. Women had more negative attitude than men (t119 = −3.6, P < 0.001), who felt, on average, neutral about insect food (t59 = 1.3, P > 0.05). Although some Western consumers do not think the information provided by famous people on entomophagy is trustworthy (Lensvelt and Steenbekkers 2014), celebrities or high-profile environmental advocates may very well represent valuable supporters of the insect food movement. Market analysis and WTP reveal that the population segment interested is substantial and has the potential to grow. Income was estimated from the mean household income of the five surrounding wards for each school. Most Western consumer surveys have been limited to a small number of Dutch, Belgian, and Australian consumers (Lensvelt and Steenbekkers 2014). A wide variety of insects in food products options are available to you, such as specification, use, and product. Indeed, the Chinese consistently give higher ratings to insect food compared with Germans and insects are a delicacy in many parts of the world; grasshoppers cost more than goat meat in Uganda, for example (Agea et al. Questionnaires were reviewed by the school staff and parents were contacted prior to the activity and voluntary consent for their children’s participation was obtained as per guidelines. As a result, normalizing insects in the West can be part of a wider effort to preserve traditional diets and limit the worldwide obesity and malnourishment epidemic (Popkin 2003). It was also informed by the preliminary results from the initial responses in the school activity and the school questionnaires and was written in English and French. ", https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/10/eating-bugs-food_n_4726371.html?slideshow=true, "The companies farming crickets for human consumption", "Farming The Next Big Food Source: Crickets", "Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products", Article on the insect burger by German start-up Bugfoundation, Finland baker launches bread made from crushed crickets, Future food now: Finnish Bugbites and Norwegian mealworm bread, "Hop into a BentSpoke beer made of crickets and flies", "Could this insect ice cream convince you to eat bugs? [18], Insect burger made by Essento containing mealworms, Insect energy bar made with processed crickets as ingredient, Insect snacks (bites) with cultivated cricket flour and oat. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context, Consumer satisfaction: a key factor of consumer loyalty and buying intention of a PDO food product, Gender differences in opinions and practices with regard to a “healthy diet”, Complete nutrient content of four species of feeder insects, Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits, Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations, I will if you will. Vegetarians will be a minority of consumers, but some of them may well consider insects as a protein alternative. Insect products for human consumption: Here is the list of companies selling edible insect products under its own brands. Chapter 4, the Insect Products for Food breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2019. Different types of information are, thus, relevant and potentially synergistic, which gives support for greater public communication about the benefits of insect food and the limits of environmental resources. The sets of four images each group received were created by randomly selecting one of three possible from each of the four categories of insect food: ‘snacks with visible insects’, ‘snacks with no visible insect’, ‘dishes with visible insects’, and ‘dishes with no visible insect’ (see Supp Materials [online only]). Groves et al an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription Hayes et.! Naturalness ’ of the biscuits line produced by MINUS FARM diet in America are already cricket. Penalty indicates that most consumers are not willing to try the food not... Restricted to insect-based products grows slightly but hovers around one-third of respondents predicted that chef or celebrity endorsement would their... 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